Cheetah. The lifespan of African Wildcats in the wild has been recorded up to eleven years and up to nineteen years in captivity. Female wild cats may teach their young how to capture prey by bringing them injured animals on which to practice. African and Asiatic wild cats remain fairly common throughout their range, although habitat destruction continues to result in a loss of suitable habitats. They do best in areas where winters are not severely cold. Domestic cats occur in many habitat types because of their association with humans. 1. Wildcats reproduce seasonally in areas of distinct seasons or throughout the year in mild climates. African golden cats hunt on the ground, but are also able to climb. living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar. and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). at http://lynx.uio.no/catfolk/sp-accts.htm. scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons. Aug 12, 2018 - Explore Kaye's board "African Wildcat", followed by 352 people on Pinterest. Cats have been kept as pets for thousands of years. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Females are pregnant for 56 to 68 days and give birth to 1 to 8 young, with an average of 3.4, in a protected burrow, often a space under rocks or in dense vegetation. Leopards can pull 200 kg of prey up a tree. Cheetahs can run at 120 km/h. In Afrikaans (South Africa) vaalboskat means 'grey bush cat'. However, true domestication may have had a religious basis. They are also secretive and agile. Wild cats are preyed upon as young cats by larger predators, such as foxes, wolves, other cats, and large birds of prey, such as owls, eagles and hawks. Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands. Because of this ability, cats can hear even ultrasonic noises made by small rodents. Males screech, yowl, display, and fight. It is listed in appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action. Body length is usually 500 to 750 mm and tail length ranges between 210 and 350 mm. Found on all continents (except maybe Antarctica) and in all biogeographic provinces; or in all the major oceans (Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. Their maximum life span is 21 years, though they usually live up to 13–14 years. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. African wild cats are found in appropriate habitat throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. How to identify the African Wild Cat Smaller than its European cousin, the African Wild Cat, also known as African Desert Cat, appears to have evolved as a separate species many thousands of years ago. Some authorities recognize F. s. silvestris as a species distinct from both F. s. lybica and F. s. ornata. They have a full inner eyelid, or nictitating membrane, which protects the eye from damage and drying. Topics Cats have scent glands on their foreheads, around their mouths, and near the bases of their tails. I’m happy to introduce Felix silvestris lybica, the African Wildcat, and a domestic cat ancestor.This animal is a subspecies of F. silvestris, and became a distinct species about 131,000 years ago.. Then, about 10,000 years ago, some of these African Wildcats were domesticated in … Distribution. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome. Vegetation is dominated by stands of dense, spiny shrubs with tough (hard or waxy) evergreen leaves. They also use them to detect the movement of prey. In South America it includes the scrub ecotone between forest and paramo. There are variety of African wild cat pet available for sale and delivering as i am going to list them below; BLACK FOOT CAT. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia. Food caching has been reported in European wild cats (F. s. silvestris). A male African wild cat was recorded with a home range of 4.3 square kilometers. The average dog weighs 44 to 55 pounds in East Africa and 54 to 72 pounds in southern Africa. Common Name: Wild cat. They are also the prey of leopards. Serval cats need zoo-like areas to explore, swim, hunt, run and occasionally climb. Category: Cat. They are instrumental in controlling populations of small mammals throughout their range. They are currently protected throughout Europe and several re-introduction efforts are underway. Wild cats often travel widely at night in search prey. What factors go into a cat's lifespan? ; 2. In deserts such as the Sahara, it occurs at much lower densities. They are also known from coniferous forests, but these may be marginal habitats. The main threat to all wild cat populations, especially those of European wildcats, is continuing hybridization (inter-breeding) with domestic forms. Although this allows them to have excellent depth perception, a useful tool in hunting, cats cannot see directly under their noses. Near human occupation wildcats are killed by shooting, snaring, roadkill and domestic dogs. Their eyes are adapted for vision in dim light for hunting just after dusk or before dawn. Accessed Their cream/yellow bodies are covered in black spots and stripes that help them camouflage in their savanna/grassland homes. "Asiatic wildcat, Felis silvestris, ornata group" They are restricted in their northern distribution by snow depth and are typically found in areas of low human populations. Females become sexually mature as early as 6 months old. gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate), Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/walkers_mammals_of_the_world/carnivora/carnivora.felidae.felis.html, © 2020 Regents of the University of Michigan. living in the southern part of the New World. at http://lynx.uio.no/catfolk/sp-accts.htm. Mortality in the wild is primarily by larger mammalian carnivores and raptors. Enter the Wildlife Africa arenas bathed in a history of wildness and predators where big cats and big crocs have reigned supreme for centuries. Although there are some people who have wildcats are pets, it should be known that these cats are wild animals and are classified as a cat species in danger of extinction. Wild cats are able to subdue prey almost as large as themselves and tend to avoid prey that is spiny, has shells, or has an offensive odor. European wild cats (F. s. silvestris) have been recorded scavenging carrion, but this is reported to be rare in African and Asiatic wild cats (F. s. libyca and F. s. notatus). Convergent in birds. The ears of a cat can rotate rapidly to identify the source of a particular sound and are able to respond to frequencies up to 25,000 vibrations per second. "African wildcat, Felis silvestris, lybica group" See more ideas about wild cats, african wild cat, cats. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico. They have a characteristic reddish tint to the fur on the backs of their ears. animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Whiskers are special hairs that are used as highly sensitive touch organs. While recent DNA research 1, 2 has identified five wild cat species as the closest group of ancestors to domestic cats, it's believed that the African Wildcat is the wild ancestor that was first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent 9,000 years ago. Canada lynx. They stand about 21-24 inches at their shoulders and weigh in at 20-40 pounds. European wild cats (F. s. silvestris) have thick, winter fur, which sometimes makes them look larger than other wild cats. (IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996a; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996b; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996c; Nowak, 1997), The young are born with eyes closed and are unable to walk. Environment: Is your cat an “indoor” or “outdoor” pet? Feral domestic cats are also usually solitary, but may form small colonies in areas where food sources are clustered, such as garbage dumps. Black-Footed Cat. European wild cats are found throughout Europe and western Russia, except for much of the British Isles (they are found in Scotland) and Scandinavian countries. Accessed December 05, 2020 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Felis_silvestris/. Females become sexually mature at about 10 to 11 months old, and males from 9 to 22 months old. Their fur is lighter and less dense than European wild cats, and their tails are thin and tapering. The cats hunt and feed on rodents, blue duikers, birds, monkeys, hogs and antelope. In other words, Central and South America. March 12, 2004 Discover How Long Wild cat Lives. European wild cats cannot persist in areas where snow depth in the winter is more than 20 cm deep for more than 100 days. It is estimated that there are more than 30 breeds of domestic cat currently. Wild cats are important members of natural ecosystems. (Nowak, 1997). The African black footed cat can also be called the small spotted cat,it has a lifespan of about 10 years. As a volunteer on this project, your main tasks will be promoting the health and welfare of all the animals living on the grounds. Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. They can be found up to 3000 m in mountains and are usually found in areas near water sources. You will be working with a variety of animals including 42 predators and two monkeys – the predators include: 4 cheetahs, 20 lions, 4 caracals, 2 servals, 1 African wild cat, 2 black backed jackals, and 9 bat-eared foxes. Without the African wildcat, you wouldn’t ever have a pet cat. African Wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) Those lucky enough to spot an African wildcat in its natural … living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture. (IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996a; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996b; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996c; Nowak, 1997), European wildcats live up to 15 years in the wild, though most die before the end of their first year. These cats spread throughout the world as pets and we eventually started selectively breeding them for specific traits, thus creating different breeds. Conservation. A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). (IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996a; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996b; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996c; Nowak, 1997). The word tabby is thought to come from a type of striped fabric from Baghdad (the Atabi). African wild cats occur throughout Africa in a wide variety of habitats. Look here to find awesome African cat names from mythology, history, and day-to-day life to give your cat or kitten a name with real meaning. Domestic kittens are weaned at about 8 weeks old and become independent at about 6 months old. Taxon Information They are about 50 percent larger than domesticated cats. IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996. Since wildcats lack any teeth for crushing, they eat their food by slicing it. Wildcats are generally grey-brown with bushy tails and a well-defined pattern of black stripes over their entire body. Rabbits may be preferred prey in some areas and seem to be the dominant prey for European wild cats (F. s. silvestris). In other words, India and southeast Asia. Bobcat. Females are pregnant for 56 to 68 days and give birth to 1 to 8 young, with an average of 3.4, in a protected burrow, often a space under rocks or in dense vegetation. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands. Wildcat kittens are weaned at two to four months and become independent between two and ten months. Newcomers must go through a series of fights with resident animals before their position in the hierarchy is established. Classification, To cite this page: Key African Wildcat Statistics. The wildcat species is made up of both the European wildcat and the African wildcat.If you’re thinking of adopting a wildcat, certain precautions need to be taken. Basic facts about Wildcat: lifespan, distribution and habitat map, lifestyle and social behavior, mating habits, diet and nutrition, population size and status. The eyes of cats are located on the front of the head. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. (IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996a; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996b; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996c; Nowak, 1997), African wild cats (F. silvestris libyca) were present in towns in the middle east at least 7,000 years ago. ; The average lifespan of female lions (lionesses) is longer than male lions. Domestic cats carry a number of diseases that may be transmitted to humans, including rabies, cat-scratch fever, and several parasitic infections. The average lifespan of a lion in the wild is up to 13 years. ... Wild Cat Kingdom ... African Golden Cat. offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) (IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996a; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996c; Nowak, 1997). More About the African Wild Cat. Wild cats communicate with visual cues, such as raising the hair on their backs, moving their tails, and facial expressions. (On-line). Lion Life Expectancy . They were largely exterminated from western and central Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries because they were considered a danger to game and domestic animals. In areas with concentrations of free-ranging domestic cats a sort of hierarchy is formed. Contributor Galleries Felis nigripes. Felis silvestris is currently regarded as being made up of three, distinct groups (or subspecies): F. silvestris lybica, African wild cats, F. silvestris silvestris, European wild cats, and F. silvestris ornata, Asiatic wild cats. National Science Foundation Physically Appearance. A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. uses smells or other chemicals to communicate. (On-line). Family: Felidae. IUCN Cat Specialist Group; Species Accounts. Dewey, T. 2005. having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Search in feature The kittens are largely fully grown by 10 months, though skeletal growth continues for over 18–19 months. living in the northern part of the Old World. Molars are specialized for cutting. (IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996a; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996b; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996c). It inhabits a broad variety of habitats, especially in hilly and mountainous landscapes such as the Hoggar Mountains. As with most small cat species, the diet of wild cats, or domestic cats, is mainly made up of small rodents, such as mice and rats. The family dissolves after roughly five months, and the kittens disperse to establish their own territories. European wildcats are critically endangered in their native range. They can live up to twelve years in captivity, but not much is known about their lifespan in the wild. Wild cat males mark territories by spraying strong urine on objects throughout their home ranges. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. The African wild cat is the direct ancestor of domestic cats and its fur is a variety of brindle cats. Other threats to European wildcats include population isolation, deaths from being hit by automobiles, and vulnerability to diseases transmitted by domestic cats. They are known from human dominated landscapes where grazing is the dominant form of agriculture and, therefore, land use is not intensive. Another notable mode of sensation in cats are whiskers, or vibrissae. Male lions weigh a whopping 190 kg. March 12, 2004 young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. The home ranges of domestic cats varies widely with the concentration of resources and the density of restrained versus feral cats. They are absent from alpine and steppe grasslands and the northern limit of their distribution may be determined by snow depth. Most wild cats are preyed upon as young cats by larger predators, such as foxes, wolves, other cats, and large birds of prey, such as owls and hawks. Black-footed cat. Efforts to control populations of domestic cats that have been introduced to islands cost many thousands of dollars to those governments, and cost us all valuable parts of global biodiversity. They were domesticated in Egypt about 4,000 years ago and began to be introduced outside of that area about 2,000 years ago. They help to control rodent populations and have been used as animal subjects in behavioral and physiological research. having more than one female as a mate at one time, communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them. Asiatic wild cats are found primarily in scrub desert, but can be found in a wide variety of habitats. Hybridization results in decreased genetic purity of the wild forms. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching. The average lifespan of a feral cat is anywhere from 3 to 5 years! Six thousand years ago Egyptians domesticated the African Wild Cat to control mice and rats raiding granaries. Indeed, it is this characteristic that probably led to the domestication of European wildcats. African Golden Cat (Caracal aurata) The African golden cat is an elusive animal that’s a close relative of the caracal and the serval. IUCN Cat Specialist Group; Species Accounts. The range of colors seen by cats is smaller than the human range. Disclaimer: Other threats to the European wildcat include habitat loss, habitat destruction, hybridization with domestic cats, and disease transmission from domestic cats. Domestic cats are highly valued as pets and as working animals throughout the world. Walker's Mammals of the World. Males do not help to care for kittens. that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle). (IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996a; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996b; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996c; Nowak, 1997). Females will mate with multiple males and multiple paternity in single litters is possible. Accessed Asiatic wild cats in particular are often active during the day. Journal of Zoology Volume 280 Issue 4, 2010. Wild cats are fierce when threatened and can protect themselves from animals larger than themselves. breeding is confined to a particular season, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female, places a food item in a special place to be eaten later. MORE IN CAT CATEGORY. Found in coastal areas between 30 and 40 degrees latitude, in areas with a Mediterranean climate. An African wild dog has a dark muzzle and vertical line running up its forehead. Canines are excellent for stabbing and holding prey as the upper ones point almost straight down and the lower ones are curved. Average Lifespan Of A Lion. Male wild cats have home ranges that overlap with the ranges of several females. Colors range from black through white, with mixtures of reds, yellows, and browns also occurring. Life Expectancy. Discover How Long African golden cat Lives. Wild cats range in weight from an average of 2.7 to 4 kg in females (F. s. silvestris average 3.5 kg, F. s. notatus average 2.7 kg, F. s. libyca average 4 kg) to an average of 4 to 5 kg in males (F. s. silvestris average 5 kg, F. s. notatus average 4 kg, F. s. libyca average 5 kg), although the weight of individual cats varies substantially throughout the year. Instead population control mechanisms are needed in most areas. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. Their normal lifespan is about 19 years. Domestic cats were probably attracted to the high rodent populations near human settlements and were welcomed as a way of controlling rodent populations. the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic. The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! Although cats have whiskers, they lack eyelashes. IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996. It weighs between 7-18 ... Habitat (Where African Wild Cats Live) Hunting and Prey (Diet) Reproduction and Lifespan. This proves just how respected the humble cat was in Egyptian culture. (IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996a; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996b; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996c; Nowak, 1997). Wild cats are primarily solitary animals, their domestic counterparts are more social and can occur in small family groups. This material is based upon work supported by the Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes). Cats have claws that can be drawn back into sheaths when not in use, keeping them quite sharp. They also have a variety of sounds that communicate different intents, including aggressive hisses and yowls, affectionate purring, and a 'be quiet' squeak used to silence kittens. (IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996a; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996b; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996c). The life cycle of African Wildcats ( Felis lybica) summary: Gestation: 56 - 68 days Litter Size: 2 - 4 kittens (max 8) Sub-Adult: 2 - 10 months Breeding Age: Males and Females 9 - 12 months Lifespan: 11 years in the wild - 19 years in captivity Their sight is good but probably not better than that of humans. It ranges across the area north of the Sahara from Morocco to Egypt and inhabits the tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands south of the Sahara from Mauritania to the Domestic cats are similar in size, but can become much heavier as a result of over-feeding. The lion is an apex predator and exists on the top of the food chain. A cat rubs these glands against objects to mark them with its scent. Wildcats have five toes on each of their forepaws, but only four toes on each back paw. African Wild Cats have a life span of 12-15 years. Domestic cats are still primarily kept worldwide to control rodent populations in urban and agricultural areas. The primary cat breeds were originally bred using cats from four major regions; the Arabian Sea, the Eastern M… The gestation period averages 65 days. One European wild cat was recorded traveling 10km in a night. The tongue is covered with tiny, curved projections called papillae. "European wildcat, Felis silvestris, silvestris group" Rodents preyed on by Asiatic wild cats (F. s. notatus) include jerboas, gerbils, voles, and mice. Herbst, M, Mills M.G.L. They remain with their mother, learning hunting and survival skills for from 4 to 10 months, usually around 5 months. Some characteristics of the African wild dog set it apart from other canines. Help us improve the site by taking our survey. found in the oriental region of the world. Domestic cats may breed much more frequently, as often as 3 times a year, as they are not typically limited by nutrition or climate. After that they are driven from their mother's range and must become independent. 12 to 15 years. reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female. The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. Occasionally, cats eat grass in order to clear their stomach of indigestible food, like bones, fur, and feathers. Their coloration is similar to that of a tabby domestic cat and makes them difficult to see in their forested habitats. Vital Stats: • LIFESPAN- Up to 15 years in the wild • WEIGHT- 3-6 kg Recently I was also fortunate enough to come across one for the first time. In desert regions they are restricted to mountainous areas and waterways. This sometimes allows them to locate and capture prey without seeing it. European wildcats play an important role in controlling populations of rodents and other small mammals. Nowak, R. 1997. IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996. They are absent only from tropical rainforest. Females also communicate when they are ready to breed with scents that they emit which are highly attractive to males. Asiatic wild cats (F. s. notatus) tend to have a background fur color that is more reddish or yellow, with an overlying pattern of dark spots that sometimes converges into stripes. African golden cat. Breeding in wild cats occurs at different times of the year, depending on local climate. Domestic cats are not threatened. Average litter size in domestic cats is 4 to 6. African wild cats (F. s. libyca) span a large geographic range, though, and coat coloration and density varies with latitude, ranging from sandy yellow to gray and brown, with darker stripes and spots. having the capacity to move from one place to another. Some researchers suggest that genetically pure European wild cats are extinct as a result of extensive hybridization. Predators. (IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996a; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996b; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996c; Nowak, 1997). Asiatic golden cat. Wild cats and their domestic counterparts are usually active at night or at dusk and dawn, although they are also active during the day, particularly in areas with little human disturbance. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa. living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity. An Egyptian cult centered in the ancient city of Bubastis worshiped cats. In comparison, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) seems a little plain. March 12, 2004 They are nursed and cared for in the den by their mother for 4 to 12 weeks. having a worldwide distribution. HISTORY African Wildcats diverged from the other Wildcat subspecies about 131,000 years ago. IUCN Cat Specialist Group; Species Accounts. living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns. Followers of the goddess Bast, the goddess of pleasure, created sanctuaries with bronze statues of cats and mummified hundreds of thousands of cats. Domestic cats have been selected by humans to display a wide array of body shapes and colors, from hairless forms to long-haired Persians and tail-less Manx cats to very large Maine coon cats. Discover How Long Wild cat Lives. forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality. ANIMAL LIFE EXPECTANCY ... LIFE SPAN: 12 - 14 years. (IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996a; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996b; IUCN Cat Specialist Group, 1996c; Nowak, 1997). AFRICAN GOLDEN CAT. In some regions females produce more than one litter in a year. These habitats … Accessed "Felis silvestris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Tom Broadhurst / Getty Images. Caracal. Asiatic wildcats are found in the Middle East, southern Russia, western China, and western India. It’s the only African wild cat that lives in the tropical forests of West and Central Africa, preferring dense, moist habitat with heavy undergrowth, but is also found in cloud and bamboo forests and moorlands. Look here to find awesome African cat names from mythology, history, and day-to-day life to give your cat or kitten a name with real meaning. Tanya Dewey (author), Animal Diversity Web. So most of the information pertains to all Wildcat species and not just the African Wildcat, although likely very similar. Accessed Both male and female African Wildcat sub-adults become sexually mature between nine and twelve months. The cat’s fur color ranges from sand-grey to pale yellow or red, with dark stripes around the face. Cat teeth are highly specialized for carnivory. at http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/walkers_mammals_of_the_world/carnivora/carnivora.felidae.felis.html. African wildcat, (Felis silvestris libyca), also called Egyptian wildcat, small, tabbylike cat (family Felidae) found in open and forested regions of Africa and Asia.Likely the first cat to be domesticated, the African wildcat is somewhat larger and stockier than the modern house cat, with which it interbreeds readily. These wild cats have very long legs (the longest of any cat) relative to their body size. Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Gestation (pregnancy) is around two months and on average two to four kittens are born per litter. They originate from the Near East countries where they were domesticated from wild cats to help control rodent populations. Breeding has been recorded nearly year round in Asiatic wild cats (F. s. notatus) and, in African wild cats (F. s. libyca) breeding has been recorded from September through March. In unrestrained domestic cat populations, female cats typically stay in their area of birth while males leave their area of birth and attempt to establish a home range elsewhere.
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