[11] Among those over 75 years old, about 5% have had an MI with little or no history of symptoms. [51], The risk of having a myocardial infarction increases with older age, low physical activity, and low socioeconomic status. If there is ongoing inflammation, the cap may be thin or ulcerate. It is a type of acute coronary syndrome, which describes a sudden or short-term change in symptoms related to blood flow to the heart. [37][69] Plaques can become unstable, rupture, and additionally promote the formation of a blood clot that blocks the artery; this can occur in minutes. [24] SPECT may also be used to determine viability of tissue, and whether areas of ischemia are inducible. [28] It is an important part of therapy for its pain relief, despite there being no benefit to overall mortality. In people with diabetes, differences in pain threshold, autonomic neuropathy, and psychological factors have been cited as possible explanations for the lack of symptoms. [69] Defibrillators detect potentially fatal arrhythmia and deliver an electrical shock to the person to depolarize a critical mass of the heart muscle. The main change is necrosis (death) of myocardial tissue. [90] The chest pain in an MI may mimic heartburn. [45], There is varying evidence about the importance of saturated fat in the development of myocardial infarctions. Narrowing of the coronary artery, leading to a myocardial infarction, usually develops over several years. [123], In the past, high flow oxygen was recommended for everyone with a possible myocardial infarction. Pain radiates most often to the left arm, but may also radiate to the lower jaw, neck, right arm, back, and upper abdomen. [5][6] The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI. [69] A 2017 review, however, did not find a difference between early versus later PCI in NSTEMI. [124][125][126][127][128] Therefore, oxygen is currently only recommended if oxygen levels are found to be low or if someone is in respiratory distress. [24] Other scans using radioactive contrast include SPECT CT-scans using thallium, sestamibi (MIBI scans) or tetrofosmin; or a PET scan using Fludeoxyglucose or rubidium-82. [70] Atherosclerotic plaques are often present for decades before they result in symptoms. The term "myocardial infarction" focuses on the myocardium (the heart muscle) and the changes that occur in it due to the sudden deprivation of circulating blood. [103], Statin therapy has been shown to reduce mortality and subsequent cardiac events and should be commenced with the aim of lowering LDL cholesterol. The level of the troponin, as well as a change over time, are useful in measuring and diagnosing or excluding myocardial infarctions, and the diagnostic accuracy of troponin testing is improving over time. A sudden onset of chest pain that often radiates to the arm and neck accompanied by dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, weakness, and diaphoresis are some of the most common symptoms. [39], The most prominent risk factors for myocardial infarction are older age, actively smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels. [31] The pain associated with MI is usually diffuse, does not change with position, and lasts for more than 20 minutes. The probes are then used to identify and clear blockages using small balloons, which are dragged through the blocked segment, dragging away the clot, or the insertion of stents. [12] These cases can be discovered later on electrocardiograms, using blood enzyme tests, or at autopsy after a person has died. Exposed to the pressure associated with blood flow, plaques, especially those with a thin lining, may rupture and trigger the formation of a blood clot (thrombus). [36] Loss of consciousness due to inadequate blood flow to the brain and cardiogenic shock, and sudden death, frequently due to the development of ventricular fibrillation, can occur in myocardial infarctions. Many times an MI occurs when one of the main arteries to the heart, specifically the coronary arteries, becomes blocked due to a build-up of plaque. Case: acute anterior myocardial infarction The following case presents the characteristics on speckle strain imaging of acute anterior myocardial infarction caused by occlusion of the LAD. [93] Keeping a healthy weight, drinking alcohol within the recommended limits, and quitting smoking reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. [8][9] Supplemental oxygen is recommended in those with low oxygen levels or shortness of breath. [28][112] Morphine may also be used, and is effective for the pain associated with STEMI. A collagen scar forms in their place. 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